Microbial Process Validation consists in validating with scientific information that a process is capable of effectively mitigating a microbial hazard of concern. The ability of a process to inactivate a target pathogen is usually measured by the log reduction of the pathogen in a target product. For instance, a 5-log reduction of Salmonella in a spice product, a nut, a flour product, etc. using a thermal process. Process validation is a cornerstone of the major international Food Safety Standards & Regulations.